DC Motor control using Arduino


Components Required:
Arduino UNO
L298 Motor driver
12V DC Motor
100KΩ Potentiometer
Connecting wires


DC Motor control using Arduino:

DC Motor is the most famous motor for beginners and learners. The Motor has two terminal(+,-) that directly connected with the battery (+,-) terminal so that it rotates in forwarding direction. If we change the pole, the motor rotates in reverse direction.

The controlling of Motor helpful in many applications like controlling the movement of robots, door movement, obstacle avoidance applications,etc.,

The motor controlled by a PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signal. Using this technique, the voltage applied to motor varies and this controls the motor. The frequency of this turning process is few 10 of KHz. PWM depend on son the Duty cycle. According to the signal input, the duty cycle varies. This signal sent to any transistor or MOSFET. This act as a switching device. This switching decides the rotation of the motor in a particular direction.

Motor Driver:

The L298 motor driver is bidirectional H-bridge motor driver. It contains four transistor circuit in the shape of H. The output contains inductive loads. There are four input pins and an enable pin. The motor pins connected with the input pin and the enable pin is low. The signal from Arduino makes input pin high and the corresponding motor runs. In this, we shall connect four motors or two motors.  This also drives stepping motor. The driver module contains four diodes and 2 capacitors. The purpose of the diode is Protection and capacitor for filter action for both power and voltage. The maximum current range is from 0-3 A.


The Motor controlled by an H-Bridge Motor driver. The H-Bridge designed with four transistors. There is two input side and this input from the Arduino decides the direction of rotation of a motor. If the right side triggered then Q1 and the Q4 transistor turned ON and current flows to the motor. In this way, the motor controlled in a simple way.



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