An Electret condenser microphone widely-used in electronic communication and audio recording device. The devices are a type of condenser microphone.
As a lost-cost and easily-manufactured recording device that offers good performance, these are one of the most commonly-used microphone types for all manner of devices. This microphone enables communication and recording in devices including telephones, smartphones, desktop computers, tablets, headsets, high-performance recording systems, hearing aids, megaphones and more. Due to their proliferation, almost everyone uses this type of microphone on an everyday basis.
Mostly in Studio for recording, condenser microphone preferred. This is a capacitor type microphone. The capacitor contains two conductors and an insulator between them. The condenser is built similar to a capacitor. This contains s thin membrane near to a metal plate or conductor. This thin membrane is similar to a diaphragm. This known as an Electrical conductive membrane on its surface. The most used material is Gold sputtered Mylar till olden days. Nowadays, Thin metal foil preferred.
When any sound waves hit the membrane or diaphragm, thin metal foil moves back and forth to the solid back plate. This, in turn, changes the distance between the capacitor plates. This capacitance changes proportional to the rhythm of sound hit the membrane. In this way, conversion of sound energy into electrical done.
The condenser produces necessary voltage, but the current is low as the capacitor stores only a small amount. So, condenser needs an external power supply. This is sweep using transistor technology. This microphone uses a ferroelectric material, an electret, that is permanently charged and polarized with a positive and negative side. Due to this permanent charge, electret microphones do not need an external power source to polarize the electret plate. This is similar to the Capacitor. The palate acts as a capacitor. If there is any movement in the plate, capacitance changes. That variable capacitance used to generate the recorded electrical signal.