World’s Smallest Transistor with a single atom:
Transistor, a semiconductor device widely used in this modern world. The main purpose of Transistor is a Switch, Amplifier. This paved way for Digital logic gates. Since they invented in the 1940s, transistors have come to revolutionize modern communications. They found in an enormous variety of electrical devices, ranging from popular consumer items such as home computer games, pocket calculators, and portable stereos to the complex electronic systems used by business and industry. Until the 1940’s, Communication system used Vacuum tubes having a lot of disadvantages. After the discovery of new class Semiconductors, communication system used Semiconductors like Silicon and Germanium. Till now, the transistor made of Si and Ge widely used everywhere.
Transistor made up of Metals:
Researchers have developed a single-atom transistor. This quantum electronics component switches, electrical current by controlling repositioning of a single atom, now also in the solid state in a gel electrolyte. The single-atom transistor works at room temperature and consumes very little energy, which opens up entirely new perspectives for information technology.
In this modern world, every processor made up of Transistors. Data processing in PCs, Smartphones, Computing centers or in any embedded related Industrial applications. Even commercially available USB itself consists of several billion transistors. This new advancement could pave a better way in the future with enhanced energy efficiency in Information Technology. This quantum electronics element enables switching energies smaller than those of conventional silicon technologies by a factor of 10,000.
This Transistor made up of two-minute metallic contacts between them gap is provided. The transistor can act as a switch by closing the circuit with the help of silver placed between the gaps. If the silver atom removed it will act as an Open circuit. The world’s smallest transistor switches current through the controlled reversible movement of a single atom. Contrary to conventional quantum electronics components, the single-atom transistor does not only work at extremely low temperatures near absolute zero, i.e. -273°C, but already at room temperature. This is a big advantage for future applications.
The main difference in this single atom transistor is, it made up of Metal, not the semiconductor. Due to this, energy consumption is low. The gel electrolyte produced by gelling an aqueous silver electrolyte with pyrogenic silicon dioxide combines the advantages of a solid with the electrochemical properties of a liquid. In this way, both safety and handling of the single-atom transistor improved.